Friday, May 22, 2020
Why are most brain surgeons and CEOs male? Why are most secretaries and nurses female? Why not female surgeons and male nurses? These are simple and frequent questions that can be answered by most Sociologist and Theorists. Sociologists and Theorists equate this type of job inequality phenomenon with occupational sex segregation. Sex segregation in the workplace is one of the most visible signs of inequality in the labor market. In almost every work setting, it is rare to see men and women working at the same job. When they do, they usually perform different tasks, with unequal levels of responsibility and authority. Even when job tasks are virtually identical, it is not uncommon to find men and women allocated to distinct jobÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Employers try to maximize profits by maximizing productivity and minimizing costs to the extent possible, but because of competition and efficient labor markets, employers pay workers their marginal product. So, this theory explain s why more males than females are surgeons; because they seem to have better opportunities for education and they tend to lack certain obligations that females have. Whereas many women find it difficult to find the time to obtain this education because of their certain obligations life hands them, for example taking care of a family and raising children. When explaining occupational sex segregation by sex, researchers usually distinguish labor supply and labor demand factors. Factors related to labor supply generally focus on why women prefer certain types of occupation for example, women may prefer those with flexible hours in order to allow time for child care, and may also prefer occupations which are relatively easy to interrupt for a period of time to bear or rear children. Explanations related to labor demand focus on why employers generally prefer to hire women or men for particular occupations and why women and men have different opportunities for promotion and career development within firms. Institutional and labor market segmentation theories are another explanation for whyShow MoreRelatedGender Inequality Of Women And Women Essay1440 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWe live in a society where men and women are not see the same nor are treated equally. Gender inequalities have always been an issue in our society. Women have always gain less respect than men based on their sex. The society has developed certain images and roles for males and females. Men are seen to have masculine traits such stability, independence, and confidence; whereas, women have more feminine traits such as nurturing, affection, and patience. As well, the society has developed the divisionRead MoreReflections on the Gender Wage Gap Essay1123 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages a full understanding of all necessary and sufficient causes remains elusive, a number of causes and contributing factors are observable, including the demand-side problem of occupational discrimination, the supply-side problem of occupational segr egation, and the cultural pervasiveness of traditional gender roles that place much of the burden of family responsibilities on women. Occupational Discrimination While women make up a significant portion of the labor force, few women reach the top ofRead MoreWomen s Rights Opportunity Commission1376 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesShe and other female workers were told that it was a manÃ¢â¬â¢s job therefore disqualifying them. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission began combating employment-related discrimination in the early 1960s through laws such as Title VII, which made sex discrimination illegal for employers. Also the Equal Pay Act of 1963 made it illegal for men and women to receive unequal wages for the same work; however, inequalities still exist. Despite federal measures to prohibit gender discrimination, women inRead MoreThe Gender Differences Of The United States Work Force1721 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesNona Mitoyan Professor Darin English 101 November 30, 2014 Sex Segregation in the U.S. Work Force This research paper focuses on the gender differences that take part in the U.S. workforce. It discusses the manner in which men and women are subtly segregated. We refuse to believe that discrimination as such continues to exist in the 21st century, yet itÃ¢â¬â¢s the ugly truth. A gender gap is created due to differences in authority, pay, and promotion. Research shows us that economic variations exist andRead MoreInequality Between Men And Women1315 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstereotypes of gender roles within society. As well, it is discrimination or devaluation based upon an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s sex or gender. Although sexism doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t exclude men, it is more so directed towards women. This is known as misogyny, or an Ã¢â¬Å"ingrained and institutionalized prejudice against or hatred of womenÃ¢â¬ (Sexism, 2005). In more simple terms, sexism is the false idea that one sex is superior or inferior to the other. In sociology, sociologists focus on the differences that are de termined byRead MoreThe Gendered Society by Michael Kimmel770 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesfrom a very sociological perspective Kimmel argues that the wage gap is a Ã¢â¬Å"[Ã¢â¬ ¦] major consequence of the combination of sex segregation and the persistence of archaic gender ideologiesÃ¢â¬ (Kimmel 261). From my perspective, I agree with all of the points Kimmel is making and believe that this chapter provides an educational background on the inequality between men and women in the workplace. However, my qualm with KimmelÃ¢â¬â¢s chapter is that he does not really discuss the patriarchal structure of capitalismRead MoreGender Inequality in Workforce904 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthere is a sex-segregated workforce in Australia (Healy 2004). For example, men and women still tend have separate occupations and to work in different areas of the workforce and industries (ibid.). In addition, historically, male dominated occupations and industries have been more greatly valued with menÃ¢â¬â¢s wo rk rewarded more than womenÃ¢â¬â¢s work (ibid.). Pocock and Alexander (1999) studied the impact of sex-segregation on the Australian wage gap. They draw the data from the Australian Workplace IndustrialRead MoreThe 1964 Civil Rights Act1173 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbasis of sex, race, color, national origin, or religion by employers. So why it is that sex segregation is so rampant in the workplace still? Segregation is defined as the characteristic on which groups are sorted symbolized dominant or subordinate status and become the bases for differential treatment. It provides rewards for the dominating group in society and makes the minority group stay below. This process provides an illusion of equal but separate treatment for the people of the workplace. MakingRead MoreGetting More Equality For Working Women985 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmovement, women get more respect and freedom in society. The world of American women was limited in almost every respect, from family life to the workp lace. Also, only 38 percent of American women who worked in 1960 were primarily restricted to jobs as teacher, nurse, or secretary. The feminist movement of the 1960s and 70s initially focused on dismantling workplace inequality, such as denial of access to better jobs and salary inequity, via anti-discrimination laws. Women through great effort and gotRead MoreAffirmative Action : The United States956 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesintroduced until the 1960s. Back then affirmative action was more known as segregation or discrimination in the workplace or there lack of. The women and people of color were the targets of discrimination, which several presidents tried to correct for equality. The Past During the Great Depression affirmative action was introduced, although it was not called that yet, under the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Segregation and discrimination was a major issue and President Roosevelt wanted to make
Sunday, May 10, 2020
In Martin Luther KingÃ¢â¬â¢s I Have a Dream Speech, he states Ã¢â¬Å"I look to a day when people will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their characterÃ¢â¬ , this appeals to the emotions that judging based on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s race is wrong. For this reason affirmative action in higher education admission should alter for it creates a perpetual racial preference in admission. Affirmative action is controversial due its issue of whether the generation of today should pay for the past injustices done to certain ethnicities. It questions the constitutionality of its existence and whether it perpetuates racial discrimination. Although affirmative action greatly promotes diversity and exposes diverse perspectives in an educational field, itÃ¢â¬â¢s time to realize its modern predicaments and visualize how to better progress terms of admission for the future of the diversified generations of America. Thus it is vital to address the reasons why prolonging affirmative action hinders the creation for better opportunities to those at a disadvantaged. The dilemma of affirmative action is defining equal opportunities, especially to ethnicities who historically felt injustice.The famous U.S landmark case Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978), where Allan Bakke, a white man, was twice rejected to University of California Medical School at Davis, ruled that racial quotas Ã¢â¬Å"violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th AmendmentÃ¢â¬ , however race can serve a part as oneShow MoreRelatedThe Benefits Of Affirmative Action855 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe benefits of affirmative action for society The ethical issues around the policy of affirmative action often raises disputes in the society. The opponents of the affirmative action or positive discrimination consider that it is the same discrimination, but of the minority against the majority. Some opponents consider that the affirmative action not only does not help the groups of minority, but also diminishes their achievements by providing them extra opportunities. Undoubtedly, there is a reasonRead MoreWhy We Still Need Affirmitive Action1493 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhy we still need affirmative action Because of the complex nature of the discussion on affirmative action and the controversies and the emotion surrounding it, it is imperative to first recap on the causes of race and inequality in the United States of America. The policies on affirmative action were proposed as a fractional remedy for the socio-economic impacts of past and present disadvantage faced by certain groups in the population, especially with regard to biases on gender and race. Such disadvantagesRead More Affirmative Action Essay1086 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The roots of Affirmative Action can be traced back to the passage of the Civil Rights Act where legislation redefined public and private behavior. The act states that to discriminate in private is legal, but anything regarding business or public discrimination is illegal. There are two instances when opposing affirmative action might seem the wrong thing to do. The nobility of the cause that help others. Affirmative Action was a great starter for equality in the work place. The mostRead Moreaffirmative action1695 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Abstract What is affirmative action? Affirmative action is an action or policy favoring those who tend to suffer from discrimination, esp. in relation to employment or education; positive discrimination. In the 1940s: President Roosevelt signed an order making discrimination illegal in defense contracting. 1954: The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that separate but equal facilities on the basis of race were unconstitutionally discriminatory. The Act of 1964: CongressRead More Affirmative Action Is the Wrong Action Essays1708 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAffirmative Action Is the Wrong Action The United States of America has long been a country divided by race. Hate has pervaded her existence since her conception, and now todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society is forced to deal with those issues. Minorities have suffered at the hands of the white male majority for centuries as the social activities of the old war were brought to the new colonies, only to ferment and continue to affect the lives of all who lived within her borders. There is no doubting that thisRead More All Things Being Equal Essay1062 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages11246, which signaled the birth of affirmative action. Affirmative action refers to efforts to increase educational and employment opportunities for minorities and women. In November, 1997, California voters did away with affirmative action [at the state level] by passing proposition 209. They were convinced that it was no longer needed, that it gave minorities and women special rights. Governor Pete Wilson wrote in 1996 as part of his campaign against affirmative act ion: Let me be clear: we haventRead MoreArgumentation-Persuasion Essay Affirmative Action1494 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesArgumentation-Persuasion Essay Affirmative Action Ronald Spears 16 March 2012 Constitution Law Bonnie Ronson Wiregrass Tech. College Online Abstract: The terms affirmative action refer to policies that take race, ethnicity, or gender into consideration in an attempt to promote equal opportunity or increase ethnic or other forms of diversity. The focus of such policies ranges from employment and education to public contracting and health programs. The impetus towards affirmative action is twofold: toRead MoreAffirmative Action Should Not Be A Program1540 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmodern American government and yet is still very active today. Affirmative action is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the practice of improving the educational and job opportunities of members of groups that have not been treated fairly in the past because of their race, sex, etcÃ¢â¬ (Merriam-Webster). Affirmative action creates a blatantly unfair advantage in college and job applications to non-minority races and is ultimately a racist law. Affirmative action is most prominent in the College admission process, where itsRead MoreAffirmative Action : African American A nd Hispanic870 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessuccessful life without affirmative action. Since Santiago was both African American and Hispanic he dealt with identity issues and stereotypes throughout his adolescent life. Even though affirmative action is supposed to make attempts to improve opportunities for groups that were historically excluded it is still a form of discrimination itself. The preference of one race over another is discrimination despite the fact if the group is gaining benefits. Contemporary society still takes on the controversialRead MoreLegal Aspect of Affirmative Action Essay1288 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAffirmative action programs are often misunderstood. Each person has their own idea of what affirmative action really entails. This paper will provide an overview of the legal aspect of affirmative action. The differences between affirmative action programs and equal opportunity legislation will be explained. The positive arguments will be presented along with the ne gative arguments. The affects affirmative action has on the society of the United States will be analyzed. Finally the reactions
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Public Sphere By Ã¢â¬Å"the public sphereÃ¢â¬ we mean first of all a realm of our social life in which something approaching public opinion can be formed. Access is guaranteed to all citizens. A portion of the public sphere comes into being in every conversation in which private individuals assemble to form a public body. We will write a custom essay sample on Public Sphere or any similar topic only for you Order Now (Jurgen Habermas, Sara Lennox and Frank Lennox, 1964) The public sphere is an area in our social life where every individual can come together to freely discuss their opinions. Besides, the constitution of public sphere is every conversation from private individuals assembles to form a public group. The concept of the public sphere, as the historically conditioned social space where information, ideas and debate can circulate in society, and where political opinion can be formed, became a central, organizing motive. This framework cast the public sphere as a sociological concept as well as an inspirational vision of something better yet to be attained. Peter Dahlgren, 1995) Besides, the public sphere is where every single individual shares information and ideas as well as identify societal problems, and through that discussion influence political action. It is a discursive space in which individuals and groups congregate to discuss matters of mutual interest and, where possible, to reach a common judgment. The internet could be an efficient political instrument if it were seen as part of a democracy where free and open discourse within a vital public sphere plays a decisive role. The model of deliberative democracy, as developed by Jurgen Habermas and Seyla Benhabib, serves this concept of democracy best. (Antje Gimmler, 2001) The internet is one of the public spheres, also known as virtual sphere for the public to discuss their opinions, mutual interest and their political views. Civil society can be defined as the totality of self-organized spheres of activity in the form of associations, organizations, cooperatives, and the like, in which members freely confer equal rights upon one another and through which a public, social and political realm is established. Citizen initiatives, round-tables, various societies, national and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and so on, all belong to the new political sphere to which the term civil society refers. Although the public sphere and civil society do not coincide, they overlap to a significant degree, and given its critical function in the model of deliberative democracy, the intersection of civil society and the public sphere is particularly important. (Antje Gimmler, 2001) The civil society is formed by self-organized spheres, and the members of it freely confer equal rights. Civil society is a new political sphere which overlaps to a significant degree with public sphere and functions as the model of deliberative democracy. Why public sphere is important? Public sphere is very important in which constituted to democracy. Television, popular newspapers, magazines and photography, the popular media of the modern period, are the public domain, the place where and the means by which the public is created and formed the opinions. The issue of the public sphere is at the heart of any reconceptualization of democracy. Contemporary social relations seem to be devoid of a basic level of interactive practice which, in the past, was the matrix of democratizing politics. Many of these places remain but no longer serve as organizing centers for political discussion and action. It appears that the media, especially television but also other forms of electronic communication isolate citizens from one another and substitute themselves for older spaces of politics. (Mark Poster, 1995) Newspaper and journals as one of the public sphere provide a lot of information and political debate. Besides, other institutions such as public assemblies also discuss about socio-political. People can shape their public opinion and talk about their needs and interests while influencing political practice. The public sphere consisted of organs of information and political debate such as newspaper and journals, as well as institutions of political discussion where socio-political discussion took place. For the first time in history, individuals and groups could shape public opinion, giving direct expression to their needs and interests while influencing political practice. The bourgeois public sphere made it possible to form a realm of public opinion that opposed state power and the economic interests that were coming to shape bourgeois society. (Lewis Edwin Hahn, 2000) From the public sphere, people can know more about the world around them. People can update the world events and the development of society through the public sphere. The public sphere is a mental environment where people engage in interpreting both the reality around them and the processes which occur there. Such interpretations, in turn, have an impact on the course of future events and processes. Thus, the public sphere serves to update people on world events and on the development of society, whilst the public is able to apply its own attitudes to the shaping of opinions which form the public sphere, as well as to the actual processes and decisions involved. (Maarja Lohmus, 2002) Why MalaysiaÃ¢â¬â¢s citizens need this public sphere? MalaysiaÃ¢â¬â¢s citizens need the public sphere to strengthen the democratization process and public deliberation. However, Malaysia government controls all of the media to filter the bad comments toward the government. Federal constitution and several restrictive laws such as the Internal Security Act (ISA), Sedition Act (SA), Official Secret Act (OSA), and Printing Presses and Publications Act (PPPA) contribute to the limitation of press freedom and engineer the refeudalization process in Malaysia. According to Doris Graber, there are no media that are free from government controls. Many of the regulations regarding the size and reach of media business combinations, protection of national security, protection of the rights of individuals, and cultural safeguards strongly influence what may and may not be published. Violations are kept in check by the fear of regulatory legislation. In times of war or similar threats to national security, controls have often become quite severe, including laws that prohibit criticism of the government. Finally, most of the information about government that the media present is supplied by government sources, giving government officials control over what to disclose or conceal and allowing them to present information from the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective. (Mohd Azizuddin Mohd Sani, 2009) Deliberative democracy is understood to be a rational discourse in which a certain political position is debated and clarified. Through the arena of the public sphere, people freely come together and discuss political issues and influence political action. The public sphere is important for the exercise of deliberative democracy, and is characterized by two distinctive features. The first is the citizens? general access to information, opinion and institutions, and the second is the enhanced political participation through discussion and debate on certain issues that would influence the political action. Thus, the Internet is credited with the potential to contribute to the public sphere and, therefore, to deliberative democracy. How to cite Public Sphere, Essay examples Public Sphere Free Essays Ã¢â¬Å"The idea that a public sphere to which everyone can contribute on equal terms is simply a fantasy. Ã¢â¬ To believe that there exists a public sphere where every single member contributes on an equal level is highly unrealistic. Correspondingly, many academics have critically supported as well as argued against this view. We will write a custom essay sample on Public Sphere or any similar topic only for you Order Now There will be discussion of the public sphere and various writerÃ¢â¬â¢s views and concepts regarding it, with specific references to Howley (2007) and Turnbull (2006), as well as Hackett (2010), Holub (1994), Apppadurai (2000), Meikle (2008), and Fraser (1990). The different academics will introduce and discuss; an ideal and flawed public sphere, a democratic public sphere, and the important roles of audiences and participants. Furthermore, there will be a particular focus on Habermas, his theories and findings consequently deconstructing his ideas on his bourgeois public sphere theory. Overall, the key argument in this discussion is that the public sphere is ideally seen as an arena for equal opinions, however pragmatically this is not the case and it is difficult to achieve it because of the different factors that exist between individuals and participants. Holub (1994) explains the public sphere as; Ã¢â¬Å"a realm in which opinions are exchanged between private persons unconstrained (ideally) by external pressures. Theoretically open to all citizens and founded in the family, it is the place where something approaching public opinion is formed. It should be distinguished both from the state, which represents official power, and from the economic structures of civil society as a whole. Its function is actually to mediate between society and state; it is the arena in which the public organizes itself, formulates public opinion, and expresses its desires vis-a-vis [face to face with] the governmentÃ¢â¬ . Similarly, a majority of modern conceptualisations of the public sphere relate back to Jurgen Habermas and his bourgeois public sphere. Habermas defines it as a space of reflective discussion about issues and subjects of a common interest, following an informed democratic procedure (Meikle 2008). Thus, a relevant example would be; supplying different resources of media to developing countries in preparation for an election or some sort political decision. By doing this, individuals are being provided an informed democratic process, allowing them access to sources of independent media to make a more informed decision before they elect. This is often present in events such as elections as it is an arena where private people come together as a public; as one. By looking back, the characteristics of the public sphere have not changed when comparing the old and contemporary. Meikle (2008) discusses how Habermas emphasized the role of periodical press in the development of his public sphere (p. 129), describing it as the Ã¢â¬Ëcoffee-house cultureÃ¢â¬â¢ and how at the time people would sit and discuss topics and events which would in turn lead to influencing the political culture of the 17th and 18th century. However, it must also be noted that HabermasÃ¢â¬â¢ accepted criticism to his notion, as well as making it clear that the public sphere is not given to every type of society, and it does not own a fixed status. Furthermore, Meikle (2008) also likens the public sphere to a place where participants can discuss their ideas freely. However, it is important to regard these definitions as the Ã¢â¬ËidyllicÃ¢â¬â¢ public sphere, Holub (1994) mentions Ã¢â¬ËideallyÃ¢â¬â¢ in brackets, because realistically it is unachievable to have this sort of Ã¢â¬ËperfectÃ¢â¬â¢ public sphere where everyone contributes equally. Many academics have criticized HabermasÃ¢â¬â¢ bourgeois public sphere, questioning if it ever really existed, and if it did, would it really be able to ever exist again? On that note, Hackett (2010) brings forth the notions that this concept of HabermasÃ¢â¬â¢ public sphere that presumes rationality, equality is false, and consequently, he critiques it, alongside Fraser (1990), saying that; Ã¢â¬Å"it embeds a masculinist notion of rationality, and a taken-for granted gendered distinction between private and public spheres. It ignores the Ã¢â¬ËcounterÃ¢â¬â¢ and minority public spheres of subordinate groups, the intrusion of social and economic inequalities into the processes of the public sphere, and the conversion of public opinion into effective state policy through representative political mechanisms. (2010, p. 4). Additionally, Fraser (1990) looks at how HabermasÃ¢â¬â¢ theory of the bourgeois public sphere constitutes a number of exclusions, in particular excluding women and individuals of lower social class, as it was not accessible to all. Lower class people did not have the resources and women did not have the same rights, privileges and power as men, in society, to have their equal say. Moreover some of these factors are still relevant, such as the social classes and accessibility to resources. Furthermore, Fraser (1990) mentions the exclusion of subordinate groups, where she states Ã¢â¬Å"subordinate groups sometimes cannot find the right voice or words to express their thoughts, and when they do, they discover they are not heard [and] are silenced, encouraged to keep their wants inchoate, and heard to say Ã¢â¬ËyesÃ¢â¬â¢ when what they have said is Ã¢â¬Ëno. Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (1990, p. 64). It is evident, that this access, whether it is technological, power or status related, to contributing to the public sphere still does not equate to equality. Rather, the factors that need to be considered are not access alone, but also what kind of Ã¢â¬ËvoiceÃ¢â¬â¢ the speaker possesses in society. All of which are dependent on a number of factors, such as the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s status in society, gender, age, class, education, culture and country. Moreover, public spheres are relevant in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s new social mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s like Twitter, Facebook and various blogs. They create an arena in which social sites, like these, generate meanings which are then distributed and discussed amongst a large audience, consequently becoming a public sphere and letting interaction occur with all its participants. This emergence of social media has called for a new public sphere to be formed. Meikle (2008) discusses how media is an integral aspect of the public sphere and that in present society, it is inescapable. Media plays an obligatory part; todayÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"newspapers and magazines, [internet,] radio and television are the media of the public sphereÃ¢â¬ (Habermas in Meikle, 2008, p. 128). However, for Habermas this role that media plays is an issue, stating that the world shaped by the mass media is only a public sphere on the exterior; only in Ã¢â¬ËappearanceÃ¢â¬â¢ and nothing else. Though the public sphere cannot be regarded as equal, Meikle does suggest that it can be look at in a positive sense; regarding it as a useful standard against which we can measure how the media actually do operate (Meikle, 2008, p. 131). Furthermore, HabermasÃ¢â¬â¢ ideal public sphere has often been said that it is being compromised by contemporary tabloid media and culture. It produces a blur between the private and public spheres in regards to celebrity culture and making their private lives a public concern and discussion. As well as regarding media as just pure entertainment, the tabloid media are constructing participants who only consume what they are being fed by the media instead of making their own informed decisions (Meikle 2008). Furthermore, Habermas (in Meikle 2008) believes that our contemporary political mediascapes, which refers to the Ã¢â¬Å"distribution of electronic capabilities to produce and disseminate information [such as] newspapers, magazines andÃ¢â¬ ¦ Television stationsÃ¢â¬ (Apppadurai, 2000, p. 326), are in fact are a long way away from being an Ã¢â¬Ëideal public sphereÃ¢â¬â¢. He looks at how Ã¢â¬Å"public opinion is no longer produced by the public, instead, public opinion is now something produced for the publicÃ¢â¬ (2008, p. 129) we are being influenced and there is no opportunity to discuss ideas freely, or for there to be complete equality in the contribution to the public sphere because of the different factors that come into play. Similarly, Habermas (in Meikle 2008) uses the term Ã¢â¬ËequalsÃ¢â¬â¢ in regards to participants in the public sphere. Yet, Meikle (2008), in accordance to FraserÃ¢â¬â¢s (1990) view, discusses how the public sphere cannot guarantee each personÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution to be of equal amount. This is because of the reasons and factors that exist in society such as; power and status; celebrity power over ordinary individuals, access to resources; developed and developing countries, and gender; the imbalance of power between men and women. Turnbull (2006) looks at the roles of audiences, and why their role is so vital in instances like these. Turnbull discusses the mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s audience and argues how media is looked at as a centrality in our lives and world, some have less or no access and the social and cultural context of the individual is Ã¢â¬Å"embedded in their access to and use of various media technologiesÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦ The Ã¢â¬Å"participation [of audiences] in an increasingly mediated public sphere may be largely conditionalÃ¢â¬ (p. 80), as it alters the stance on every participant having an Ã¢â¬ËequalÃ¢â¬â¢ contribution to the public sphere. Howley (2007) states that people need to promote a more democratic media culture, for a place that individuals can share their mutual interests and concerns, discuss topics. He supports that there is not one sole public sphere because there is not a single medium that is Ã¢â¬ËperfectÃ¢â¬â¢ (pp. 357-358). Furthermore, Howley (2007) brings forth the idea that the public sphere is the centrality for media institutions but is also significant for media students, providing a theoretical perspective; it helps to emphasize the essential and crucial relationships between democracy and modern communication systems. As the role of a democracy, a citizen who is informed and wishes to engage, needs to be accommodated by the media; providing them resources of news, information and opinion, for that individual to then be able to use this to identify themselves towards this common interest. However, this notion of a democratically public sphere has issues that arise, the main one being the nature and conduct of public discourse in a highly mobile and heterogeneous society. By regarding societies that have things like ethnic, religious and cultural diversity, partisan politics, and economic stratification present, the sole idea of achieving agreement on matters of public policy seem inaccessible and unachievable. Also, another issue is the Ã¢â¬Å"contemporary media systems Ã¢â¬â characterised by unprecedented consolidation of ownership and control on the one hand, and the fragmentation of mass audiences into even smaller Ã¢â¬Ëniche marketsÃ¢â¬â¢ on the other Ã¢â¬â makes issues of access to and participation in public discourse equally problematicÃ¢â¬ (pp. 343-344). Thus, this idea of an equal and democratic public sphere is difficult to have and carry out. In conclusion, the ideal public sphere tries to offer a place where people are able to discuss their ideas freely between one another. However, to believe that individuals can discuss in a completely free manner, with no influence and be complete equals, contributing on equal terms, is a far-fetched hope. There can only ever be a place of equality and rationality in an ideal society, as factors of social, linguistic and cultural inequalities, rights and even freedom of speech of an individual, all affect any possibility of equal communication and contribution between people in a public sphere. How to cite Public Sphere, Papers
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Aloud Equation describes the life of a native African who was kidnapped from his homeland in the Oboe Province (which is now the Nigerian town of Sissies) at age eleven and thrown into the horrors of the African slave trade. Unlike most victims of the slave trade, Equation regained his freedom and experienced multiple facets Of life that no one could have expected.Equation became a man of diverse customs and values. However, due to the absence of written records it is often a matter of debate as to what his true origin really was. Throughout his autobiography, Aloud Equation defined himself as a native African. He used vivid illustrations of his homeland and experiences on the Middle Passage, and was even willing to defend the publics view of him as a man of Africa. I personally define Equation as a European citizen according to his customs, personal desires, and behavior. We will write a custom essay sample on Olaudah Equiano: a Man of Many Customs or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Quinoas narrative played a key role in a variety of cultural, historical, and literary issues, therefore, the identification ND ultimately the validity of its author take on special importance. While reading The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Aloud Equation found it very apparent that Equation viewed himself as an African born individual. He illustrated his culture and customs as an Gobo African in vivid details of culture, religion, law, and agriculture. (43-56) He also described the atrocities of the Atlantic slave trade as if he had recently experienced them: stating the smell, appearance, and reaction of his fellow slaves. 64-68) Although culturally Equation became almost and Englishman, embracing Christianity ND British customs, the experiences Equation shared with slaves and free people of color, and living in a world that did not differentiate between members of separate African communities, led him to consider himself also a son of Africa. (21 ) Equation embraced his A frican heritage throughout his life and even fought to uphold his reputation as such. There was an instance where two anonymous notes appeared in London papers charging that he was not from Africa at all, but was actually born on the Danish island of SST.Choir in the Caribbean. Equation realized that this claim falsified the validity of his Narrative and immediately confronted and threatened those responsible for the papers with legal action, providing actual witnesses of the fact that upon his arrival in England he was only able to speak an African language (24-25). This reaction shows that Equation held much pride in his African identity and was willing defend it against those who claimed otherwise. However, there is evidence of significant authority that claims Equation may have fabricated the origins of his identity.There are two certain documents, covered by literary historian Vincent Garrett, that pinpoint the birthplace of Equation in South Carolina that keep modern day scholars and historians from absolute certainty of his actual birthplace. One of these docu ments was written on February 9, 1759 in the baptismal registry of SST. Margaritas Church in Westminster, England. It read, Gustavo Vass (Aloud Equation) a Black born in Carolina 12 years old. (26) The second document was from Quinoas Arctic expedition in 1773. It claims that he was currently 28 years old and born in South Carolina.Neither of these findings is conclusive as to whether Equation was African or American-born, but they certainly leave plenty of room for uncertainty. (26-27) I personally define Equation as European, particularly an Englishman. Notions of English nationality are found in great abundance throughout the text. Quinoas narrative repeatedly expresses his desire for a male English identity. He doesnt view Englishmen as a racially exclusive nationality, but one that evokes an ethnic identity that Equation defines through Christianity, and citizenship.Two to three years after arriving n England Equation claimed l no longer looked at them as spirits, but as men superior to us; and therefore had a stronger desire to resemble them; to imbibe their spirit, and imitate their manners therefore embraced every occasion of improvement; and every new thing that I observed I treasured up in my memory. (83) Here we see Quinoas envy for his new superiors and his wish to possess their culture and belongings. This desire strongly encouraged my opinion of Quinoas identity as European.My opinion was also influenced by Quinoas acculturation into English society and customs during his early teen years. l could now speak English tolerably well, and I perfectly understood everything that was said. I now not only felt myself quite easy with these new countrymen, but relished their society and manners. (83) It is clear that Equation identified his shipmates as his countrymen and personally enjoyed the interactions he had with each one of them. It was now between three and four years since I first came to England, a great part of which I had spent at sea; so that became inured to that service, ND began to consider myself as happily situated; for my master treated me always extremely well; and my attachment and gratitude to him were very great. From the various scenes I had beheld on ship-board, I soon grew a stranger to terror of every kind, and was, in that respect at least, almost an Englishman. (83) This passage shows that Equation developed an affectionate relationship with his master and also that their bond strengthened Quinoas identity as an adult man.Even more important, the identity Equation is trying to proclaim for myself as an adult man, a stranger to terror of eve ry kind, is as a European. There are also certain actions and beliefs that Equation maintained that provoked the establishment of his European desires. For instance, he believed the only manner towards proper adulthood is as an Englishman. Equation doesnt come right out and say this but there is a point in the text where he noted that he considers himself very fortunate that he didnt receive his family members tribal marking on his face, as is would have represented his entrance into mature Bib manhood. As was now amongst a people who ad not their faces scarred, like some of the African nations where had been, I was very glad that I did not let them ornament me in that manner (69). Also, during Quinoas voyage to Jamaica and the Mosquito Shore he went to see a Guineas doctor to purchase slaves to cultivate a plantation. He even chose them according to their native land in hopes that it is near his own. (189) The identification of Aloud Equation is of the utmost importance because of the critical role he played in the antislavery movement.Even the timing of a personable voice speaking out against slavery Was important cause it was a time when opposition to slavery was scattered throughout Britain and America and Quinoas narrative, along with other factors, helped assemble the movement into one of the greatest in British history. It was Quinoas personal accounts and experiences that validated his narrative. He possessed the intelligence and capability to spread his ideas to men and women on all levels of British society. He also had the members of significant political authority to support his narrative to yet further its validity.Unfortunately, Equation never had the opportunity to bare witness to what he irked so hardly toward because the slave trade ended in both England and the United State ten years after his death (1807). Conclusively, it is very apparent that Aloud Equation distinguished himself as an African-born man, even though personally identify him as a man of European customs based on his desires, influences, and his acculturation into European society. Most importantly, Quinoas narrative played a key role as an abolitionist tool in the fight against slavery and the identity of its author deems it valid as a historical document.
Friday, March 20, 2020
Ethical Issues When Working With Children Social Work Essay Essay Example Ethical Issues When Working With Children Social Work Essay Essay Ethical Issues When Working With Children Social Work Essay Essay Essay Topic: Social Issues Social Issues To what extent can research workers be after for ethical issues when working with kids and immature people? Peoples frequently think of moralss or ethical motives, as a regulation for separating between what is right and incorrect. Something that springs to mind, is the stating ; Do unto others as you would hold them make unto you or the spiritual credo of the Ten Commandments, Thou Shalt non kill . This is a common manner of specifying moralss and the norms for behavior that distinguish between unacceptable and acceptable behavior. Most people learn ethical norms within the place, at school or in other educational scenes. Majority of people get their sense of right and incorrect during their childhood as moral development occurs throughout life. Simply because as human existences, we pass through different phases of growing as we mature. Ethical norms can be classed as omnipresent, merely because one might be tempted to see them as simple commonsense . A plausible account of these dissensions is that as worlds, we can recognize some common ethical norms, but bulk of persons may use and construe these norms in different ways in regard of their ain life experiences and ain values. Our society has legal regulations that govern behavior, but ethical norms can be broader and more informal than Torahs. However, most societies use Torahs to implement moral criterions and ethical and legal regulations use similar constructs, it is nevertheless important to indicate out that jurisprudence and moralss are non the same. For illustration, an action could be classed as legal, but illegal or unethical, but ethical. Society besides uses ethical constructs and rules to construe Torahs, evaluate and criticise. Within the last century, citizens were urged to disobey Torahs in order to protest what they classed as unfair Torahs that were immoral. Within research with kids and immature people there are several grounds why it is of import to adhere to ethical norms. First, it promotes the purposes of research and illustrations include, truth, turning away and cognition such as beliing research informations promote the truth, prohibitions against fabricating, distorting and avoid mistake. Second, is that research frequently involves a great trade of cooperation and coordination amongst different people in different establishments and subjects. Ethical criterions promote the values that are indispensable to collaborative work, which include equity, trust, answerability and common regard. For illustration, many ethical norms in research, such as guidelines for writing, informations protection policies, and confidentiality regulations are designed to protect rational belongings involvements, but still encouraging coaction amongst the establishments. Therefore, research workers want to have recognition for their work and parts to be disclosed prematurely and do non desire to hold their thoughts stolen. Third and the chief criterion is that many of the ethical norms help to guarantee that research workers can be held accountable to the populace. Many of the norms with research are that it promotes a assortment of other of import moral and societal values, for illustration societal duty, human rights, conformity with the jurisprudence, and wellness and safety. Critically, ethical oversights in research can significantly harm worlds, pupils and the populace. A research worker who may manufacture informations in a clinical test could harm patients and a research worker who fails to stay by ordinances and guidelines, as set out in the ethical criterions, could endanger his wellness and safety or the wellness and safety of staff and pupils in relation to radiation or biological safety. Consequently, moralss are frequently a affair of seeking to happen a balance between opposite extremes. Ethical research with kids has changed significantly in the past 30 old ages and modern criterions of research moral principle may well depend on modern crystalline research methods and a respectful relationship between kids and research workers. During the 1947s attorneies stressed the dangers of research and insisted that willing consent should be obtained, although it was presumed that kids were excessively immature to give consent and accordingly banned from take parting from research. Traditionally, kids were non allowed to accept for themselves for medical Children traditionally were non allowed to accept for themselves in footings of medical processs and even for the simplest processs. Today, there are three sanctioned theoretical accounts of consent for kids. First, kids who are classed as competent, which are sometimes called minors may supply consent on their ain. Second, kids may supply an acquiescence with parental consent and 3rd, some kids, due to their developmental phase or age can non supply consent until parental consent is sought. Critically, this can raise serious on-going challenges and some of the troubles can originate from measuring competency, best involvements every bit good as, motives. Equally good as covering with struggle between kids, parents and or with kids and young person, many of which may be populating on the street or in a crisis state of affairs, to call merely a few illustrations. Childs are traditionally considered more vulnerable than grownups and this is because of their deficiency of competency to take portion in doing determinations. This could be particularly around complex issues, such as wellness attention and inclusion, in research. This exposure means that parents/ defenders, pedagogues and wellness attention professionals must be trusted to move in their best involvements and do determinations for them. Furthermore, this exposure has frequently meant that some kids are merely excluded from research which is frequently in short-sighted efforts to protect them from injury. Consequently, this has resulted in excepting kids from research and in research, failed to larn about kids and to develop better and new ways to handle, attack and protect them. Alderson ( 2004 ) states that Ethicists teach the regulations for ethical research are based on three chief ways of believing about what is good research: the rules of making good research because it is right and right thing to make. Right based research involves regard and kids s rights, such as supplying for basic demands for illustration, health care and instruction. Protection from kid maltreatment and favoritism and engagement is critical during ethical research in holding their ain positions listened to and respected by grownups. This is based on good research, instead so trusting entirely on grownup rules and values. The best results based moralss fundamentally means, working out how to avoid or cut down injury and costs . Research workers may bring forth really deceptive consequences that are produced in policies that could damage kids s lives. Research workers may upset kids by worrying them by doing false promises or bewray them. Critically, moral inquiries about power, honestness and esteeming people can originate throughout the research procedure. Although a job, frequently rarely mentioned by ethicians, is a hazard on published research studies that addition stigma and disadvantage kids and immature grownups. However, these studies can assist research workers turn to such hazards and jobs and larn how to cover with them. An existent research that was nt decently planned and a peculiar ethical issue uncovered was when, as stated by Dennis, 2009 A Nipponese alumnus pupil, was interpreting at a parent/teacher conference and the instructor asked her to go through along remarks to the parents that Hanako s idea were ill-mannered. She did non desire to make it. She intervened covertly because she did non go through along the remarks as they had been expressed by the instructor, but she pretended to make so. She tried to do the point the instructor was doing, but in a much more polite, positive, and from Hanako s position, acceptable manner . Critically, this issue would hold failed to show the instructor s annoyance and present an ethical hazard, as this interpersonal intercession was non inclusive. It could present a possible injury, as it failed to advance moral and societal values and follow ethical criterions that promote the values that are important to collaborative work, such as common regard and t rust, particularly when working with kids and immature people. Another existent research that the research worker planned good for ethical issues was that off, Naz Rassool. Rassool ( 2004 ) was interested in working with a group of 14 and 15 twelvemonth olds that raised several ethical and practical issues. Rassool felt that the students should non be exploited emotionally due to the nature of the work as the students were in a critical stage of their development. The research had to be really sensitive through its probes of individuality formation. Therefore, the ethical issues were paramount and persisted throughout the research. Rassool found the most effectual manner to turn to the theoretical research inquiry to the students, integrating the constructs of faith, knowledgeableness, societal alteration and single reflexiveness, all provided Rassool the theoretical model. To bring forth a common apprehension of the intent of the research, Rossool conducted a seminar with staff involved, which addressed the purposes of the research, ethical iss ues and the intent of the activities. Other ethical issues, revolved in having parental consent and whether this as perfectly necessary, if the activities formed a portion of the instruction programme. However, since the ultimate purpose is to reply research inquiries it is important that all ethical issues are applied throughout. Critically, nevertheless when working with kids and immature people, it is normal protocol to seek parental consent, particularly when carry oning research. Rossool s research promoted the purposes of research ; followed ethical criterions and advance the values, which are indispensable for collaborative work, such as common regard, trust and equity. It promoted moral and societal values. Research to a great extent relies on the populace to take portion in the research and if this cooperation is to go on, so research workers have to maintain high ethical criterions. Alderson ( 2004 ) states public anxiousness about the remotion of kids s variety meats without consent, partially for research shows how research moralss, consent and rights may alter, particularly when kids are involved . Similar alterations may happen in societal research and hence, it is important to derive foresight about societal research from the hindsight of medical research. Critically many medical diaries refuse to print these studies that may non hold the backup of ethical commission blessing and hence, research workers need to maintain abreast of the ethical criterions. Deriving moralss commission blessing can take clip and can protect people who take portion in the research and protect them from judicial proceeding and unfavorable judgment. The extent research workers can be after for ethical issue is by affecting kids and immature people and should merely be conducted when the research inquiry posed is important to the well-being and wellness of kids. Ethical motives help research workers to be more cognizant of hidden jobs, but do non ever provide the right and easy replies. However, a research process which is non intended straight to profit the kid topic is non needfully either unethical or illegal. Such research includes detecting and mensurating normal development and the usage of healthy voluntaries in controlled experiments. The engagement of kids is indispensable and this is because the information available from research on other persons can non reply the inquiry posed in relation to the kids. Therefore, the survey method is appropriate for kids and the fortunes in which the research is conducted, provides for the emotional, physical, emotional and safety of the kid. The challenges associating to ethical and consent issues affecting kids and immature people in research are legion and necessitate careful consideration and yet are non unsurmountable. Critically, as a precedence, research workers must prosecute with the legal, moral and ethical jussive moods offered by UNICEF. As Alderson quoted, that Rights based research involves regard and kids s rights and as portion of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in peculiar. The research worker needs to give diligence to Article 12, and the article due and persevering consideration in its entireness, by esteeming the positions of the kid. Research workers must non merely commit to inclusive patterns, but besides maintain assiduousness in guaranting that kids and immature people are respected participants in the research procedure, from choice of methodological analysiss to the airing and coverage of consequences. With these guidelines in head, kids should be offered chances to truly take part in research. When grownups are doing determinations that affect kids, kids have the right to state what they think should go on and hold their sentiments taken into history. Ethical considerations are paramount in kids s research and direction of these considerations can be really influential on the research that is finally completed with kids and immature people. The major issues discussed include, protection and safety versus engagement, the function of moralss commissions and the impact of consent procedures. In drumhead, negociating moralss blessing and entree to kids and immature people remains a major challenge. More attending demands to be given to easing information and understanding participatory research across all groups involved to understate civilization clangs and increase the apprehension of the nature of participatory research. As Dennis, 2009 quotation marks There is one ethical rule that worked otherwise: all people s voices should be included in determination devising therefore those who oppose equalitarianism should non be allowed to do determinations that limit the inclusion of others voices. In this instance, there is no manner to accomplish classless inclusivity with people who would restrict the classless and inclusive intervention of others. Therefore, the two facets of this ethical rule do non belie each other and do non necessitate to be criticised on these evidences . The extent research workers can be after for ethical issue is by guaranting the acceptance of methods which are respectful to the kids and is besides important that research workers take moralss earnestly. This may intend research workers traveling off from traditions that in the yesteryear may hold considered kids as unthinking human existences . Alternatively, it places the accent on esteeming kids as dynamic people, which makes this method more realistic and productive. This is accordingly classed as ethical, as most moralss encourage research methods with kids participants. Word Count: /2,500
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
How to Choose the Right Book Cover Dimensions in 3 Simple Steps How to Choose the Right Book Cover Dimensions When we talk about book cover design, we often talk about the color palette, typography and use of images. What we rarely mention are the dimensions of the cover. After all, itÃ¢â¬â¢s usually determined by the bookÃ¢â¬â¢s trim size. That, or itÃ¢â¬â¢s seemingly inconsequential, as most new independent authors rely on ebook sales anyhow, where the cover only really exists on digital retailers.In this post, we'll look at the standard sizes of book covers in publishing and help you decide on the right dimensions when creating or commissioning your own design.Before we jump too far into the conversation, let's start by looking at the most popular ebook cover sizes used today.What are the recommended book cover dimensions?Kindle Direct Publishing recommended size - Ã 2,560 x 1,600 (1.6:1 aspect ratio)Novels and Non-Fiction - Ã 2,560px x 1,600px (1.5:1 aspect ratio)Illustrated Books - Ã 2,800px x 3,920pxÃ (1.4:1 aspect ratio) orÃ 3,000px x 3,600px (1.2:1 aspect ratio)Audiob ooks - Ã 3,200px x 3,200px (1:1 aspect ratio)These numbers might be confusing at first, especially if you're not familiar with pixels and aspect ratios. In this next section, we'll take a closer look at what these terms mean, and how they will affect your cover. Choosing the size and shape of your ebook coverThe cover on the right has half the dots per square inch (DPI) of the version on the left.Both KDP Print and IngramSpark suggest a resolution of 300 dots per square inch (DPI) for your cover design. And in the case of most printers, a CMYK (Cyan Magenta Yellow) color profile is preferred over an RGB (Red Green Blue) one.To learn more about designing your perfect cover, check out this complete guide to book cover design on the Reedsy blog.Do you have any questions or thoughts on book covers and their recommended dimensions? Drop a message in the comments below.
Monday, February 17, 2020
BP's Africa Strategy - Essay Example BP is a multi-million multinational oil and gas company with regional branches in almost every part of the world. The company has a head office in the United Kingdom. According to the latest version of Forbes magazine, the company is ranked in the third largest among the energy companies, while it falls in the fourth position among the largest companies in the entire globe (Monasa, 2008). The company has ventured in almost all major process in the energy sector; this includes exploration, refining, production as well as marketing and distribution among other processes. Currently, the company has its branches in about 85 nations. This work focuses on the BP analysis in Africa. BP has an established brand name, and this can be indicated by its fast growth rate. The company has its branches in several nations in Africa, but the African branch is headquartered in South Africa. The company has its billboards in major parts of Africa, this is a good indication that the company is still on the move to brand itself further. BP Africa is facing stiff business competition from other oil and gas companies like SNEPCO, Gulf Oil Company, sea petroleum and gas group of companies, Teresols Oil & Gas, The Hydra group and PetroSA among others. The company has adopted some business strategies to remain on top of the business among its competitors. These strategies are meant to attract and maintain more customers. The company has been on a business growing trend since the Africa Company was established. BP Africa ventures on oil and gas as its main products (Mark, 2007). These products are termed as global products since they are important in any part of the government. Oil is a very important commodity in the current generation where the automobile is part and parcel of human life. Gas on the other hand is another commodity current generation can hardly do with. Gas is majorly used as a source of fuel. BP Africa has adopted some business strategies to beat its competitors. The f irst move advantage is applied in several ways of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operations. First Bp was among the first oil and Gas Company in the continent. This provided a humble ground for its marketing. The company reports indicate that little resources were used to market or advertise the company products. This is because very few related companies were already in the market. It took several years before African countries could establish their own oil and gas companies like PetroSA , Oil Libya and National oil among others. The pioneers in a certain business would always the overall control of the sector, since it sticks to the memory of majority for quite a long time despite the competitors (Schmenner, 2004). BP Africa created a business monopoly or emperor which would take a long time to be broken. The company has however advanced its operations to maintain the customers it captured when it came to Africa. The company also enjoys the fact that the majority of auto-mobile owners like to maintain fuel from a specific company. Using oil from different companies interferes with the efficient operations of engines. Advantage of first move The company took advantage of emerging first in the market by purchasing large amount of oil and gas from African companies at more subsidized price then repackage and sell at a more favorable prices to attract more customers but make profit in